• Chemical Industries and Associated Environmental Problems: A Case of Somaliland.






Hosted and organized by Golis Organization for Saving the Environment and Presented By an expert from Urban Waste Management.


The training workshop on Solid Waste Management (SWM) on Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle (3R) approach was carried out in Hargeisa from 19th Dec.  2015. The training is one activity of the Development of Solid Waste Management Plan for Hargeisa Solid Waste & Environmental Characterization project. The one-day training was an overview of how to understand the solid waste management systems in Somaliland (Hargeisa) and the existence, if any, of difference in waste management systems of hazardous and non-hazardous waste


The overall objective of the training was to build the capacity of the Solid Waste Management and thus develop resource persons who are capable of conducting the survey and situation analysis of solid waste generation at Hargeisa. The training guided the participants on Solid Waste Management survey process, especially on the characterization and quantification of solid waste.

To analyze the efficiency of and effectiveness of collection, handling and disposing of solid waste as well as the health and environmental risks involved in the process and to identify the main challenges, gaps and opportunities to improve solid waste management (Municipality) and the role of the stakeholders in solid waste management chain and how this can be improved e.g.  Recycling, Reducing waste and reuse. to assess the existence of municipal regulations (by laws) covering every stage of existing solid waste management chain and how these are implemented



Training Process and Structure

The training was prepared for experts from local institutions who had basic knowledge and involvement on solid waste management & .biomedical waste. The training was offered By Eng. Yusuf Ahmed (Urban Waste Mngt) who is a senior expert on SWM and Consultant Action Africa Help International and Pest Control Agency in Hargeisa. The approaches applied for the training were:

  • Interactive – participatory
  • Sharing of experiences and knowledge
  • Solid & Biomedical Waste presentations group and individual exercises
  • Group discussions and the presentations of the Solid Waste plus Biomedical waste

Training Participants

The training workshop was attended by the stakeholders and the involved institutions namely:

“Barwaaqo Voluntary Organization, Deegaan Network, Ministry of Health Sanitation Dept, Ministry of Industry dept of Protection, Keeps solid waste contractor, Gurmad NGO Organization, Horsed city sanitation, Tabsan Solid Waste contractor, Almis Solid Waste contractor, Urban Waste Management, Community member, Pest Control Agency”.

Workshop participants as whole(Gulied Conference hall)



According to the Hargeisa Municipality, 223 t/d waste are produced by 650,000 inhabitants in Hargeisa, therefore, per-capita production results equal to 0.35 kg/d. A waste composition analysis was conducted on Hargeisa urban solid waste since data referring to waste composition were not available. On the whole, 129.1 kg of waste were collected and analyzed. They were characterized by an average density equal to 172 kg/m3.

There is no specific legislative framework that deals directly with SWM in Hargeisa. Although there are many legal instruments that bear on SWM, but there is legal frame work adopted by the Municipality of Hargeisa (By laws), there is no national level implementation or adoption for the protection of the environment, and enforcements  practically non–existent due mostly to staffing constraints, lack of proper training, low level of fines, and political interferences. Equally important is the lack of awareness of regulations amongst personnel who are supposed to enforce them. the Draft Law of the Solid Waste Management was presented  to Parliament for ratification in Somaliland.

It’s been highlighted by one of the solid waste contractor (keeps), the uncertainty concerning lack of institutional framework and responsibilities is a major obstacle for the implementation of solid waste management system. In recognition thereof, the Draft Law on SWM brings the many stakeholders together into a single independent Solid Waste Management Board responsible for planning and decision-making at the national level, as well as waste treatment. Local authorities (municipalities, unions of municipalities, or groups of the two) will be responsible for the waste collection. The SWM Board, which will be responsible for the waste management, will be headed by Local Government and shall include members from relevant public authorities as well as well as the private sector (academics, consultants) and NGOs.

Public awareness and community participation in support of SWM are still weak in Somaliland.There is also still a lack of knowledge from the public about the methods and ways for SWM. It is clear that there is an urgent need for public awareness on both to implement household and decision making levels in order to develop a good strategy and successfully put it in action.

In conclusion, during the development of the SWM plan, the input and active participation of the local authorities and population should be sought while being well managed. NGOs and solid waste networks (such as Golis Save Environment and other Volunteer local community participants) could play an important role in raising awareness through the transfer of information between their members, through awareness campaigns, etc.

Lack of infrastructure of Solid & Biomedical waste in Somaliland

With regard to industrial and medical wastes, Somaliland is still considered as one of the countries that lack adequate and well-operated infrastructure for their management and disposal, although significant progress in health care waste management has been identified during the past years. As a result, unresolved environmental problems has been accumulating for years now, which lead to major issues such as

1) Increased air pollution due to indiscriminate burning of the waste;

2)  Inappropriate disposal of plastic bags and health care effluents and wastes.

However, in the absence of a well-defined legislation and more  stringent controls, most of the construction debris and hazardous wastes are being mixed with the municipal wastes. Golis Save Environment, Urban Waste Management who are specialized of biomedical waste treatment & disposal and other Volunteer local community participating in the sector in the country, with activities and projects focusing mainly on:

  1. Feasibility studies for Solid & Biomedical waste projects, dumpsites rehabilitation, marketing of compost;
  2. development of national strategies and legal/institutional framework for SWM;
  • provision of infrastructure for solid waste collection;
  1. closure of existing dumps;
  2. execution of SW treatment facilities;
  3. strengthening and developing the capacity of stakeholders at both the national and local levels; and
  • Awareness programs to population. Information and knowledge amongst residents and stakeholders are important for efficient and sustainable development in the SWM sector.

The poor dissemination of information and knowledge sharing between the various stakeholders, the lack of sufficient capabilities at both the national and municipal levels, the poor coordination between the stakeholders, the lack of clear definition of responsibilities in the public sector due to the absence of legal/institutional framework, as well as the lack of sufficient awareness and community participation in the SWM sector have been key factors hindering the setting up of an efficient SWM in Somaliland  and have given rise to the need for the establishing of networking.

The benefits of networking can be well recognized amongst members and stakeholders, and can be witnessed in the contribution to a more sustainable development of the SWM sector. The potential activities of Golis Save Environment in Somaliland have been identified at the various levels: policy, legislative and institutional, planning, financing and cost recovery, private sector participation, technology application, public awareness and public participation, data management and others.

Conclusion of the Report


Developing comprehensive and effective systems of knowledge Management at a national as well as at a regional scale remains central to the effective environmental management of the potential users know where and how to look for information.

Training and capacity building activities may be conducted through training workshops and e-learning activities, technical and advisory services, field missions and technical visits, development of guiding documents and studies, regular reports on waste management, support of awareness campaigns, and promotion cooperation and know-how to transfer and implementing SWM requires comprehensive data on present and anticipated waste situations, supportive policy frameworks, knowledge and capacity to develop plans/systems, proper use of environmentally sound technologies, and appropriate financial instruments to support its implementation. Golis Save Environment could play an important role in training and capacity building. One of the drivers for the success of the capacity development programs is the strong commitment to transition into a knowledge society in Somaliland.

Participant of workshop training ….19. Dec 202

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